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Technology for All Americans Project (TfAA) logo

Phase II of TfAAP

Development of STL

Note: The ITEA-TfAAP webpages are intended to present the reader with an historical perspective of the project and the ground-breaking work it accomplished. The TfAAP web pages are archival and will not continue to be updated. After the TfAAP web pages were archived in January 2006, ITEA had a name change and became the International Technology and Engineering Educators Association (ITEEA). The name was not changed on these archival pages.

Cover of Standards for Technological Literacy: Content for the Study of Technology The primary focus of Phase II of the Technology for All Americans Project (TfAAP) was to develop content standards* for the study of technology,* which were built upon the foundation outlined in Technology for All Americans: A Rationale and Structure for the Study of Technology (Rationale and Structure), developed during Phase I of the project. Phase II took place over four years (1996-2000) and involved thousands of individuals worldwide. It culminated in the publication of the document entitled Standards for Technological Literacy: Content for the Study of Technology, commonly called STL, in 2000. STL was reprinted in 2002.
In addition to advising TfAAP staff on best practices in standards development, the Phase II Advisory Group offered specific advice on how technology education* can be taught as a core subject of inherent value as well as an integrated* subject within other content areas.
TfAAP utilized three Writing Teams during Phase II: one team focused on the standards for Grades K—2/3—5, a second team focused on the standards for Grades 6—8, and the third team focused on the standards for Grades 9—12. Each team had an appointed Leader and Recorder.
Eight formal drafts of STL were developed and reviewed before a final draft was prepared in Autumn 1999. Significant among the reviewers were two important agencies of the National Academy of Sciences: the National Research Council (NRC) and the National Academy of Engineering (NAE). Both NRC and NAE gave STL a positive review. NAE strongly supported implementing the standards* nationwide as a result of their involvement in the review process. It is noteworthy to recognize that this was the first time NAE supported a publication it did not write.
STL is NOT a curriculum.* It identifies a common set of expectations for what should be learned in Grade K—12 laboratory-classrooms* to ensure the effective, comprehensive study of technology across grade levels.* STL articulates content for the study of technology — the progression of facts and concepts that must be presented to students and understood by students as well as the abilities students should be able to demonstrate at specific grade level* assessment* checkpoints — to ensure that all students ultimately develop into technologically literate citizens. Technological literacy should be understood as the ability to use, manage, understand, and evaluate technology.
In addition to acquiring cognitive knowledge that integrates concepts from other educational disciplines, STL requires that students develop skills* through hands-on* participation in laboratory projects, thus acquiring the ability* to apply both knowledge and skills to the real world.
The standards articulated in STL were completed during Phase III of TfAAP by the development of a companion document entitled Advancing Excellence in Technological Literacy: Student Assessment, Professional Development, and Program Standards (AETL).
 Completion of Standards for Technological Literacy: Content for the Study of Technology (STL) ended Phase II of the Technology for All Americans Project. The document is available for review in read only, PDF format in TfAAP Publications.

Phase II Project Participants (1996-2000)


TfAAP Staff 

Dr. William E. Dugger, Jr., DTE, Project Director
Pam B. Newberry, Assistant Researcher, Project Manager & Contributing Writer
Melissa Smith, Editor
Stephanie Overton, Publications Coordinator
Constance Moehring, Volunteer Librarian & Researcher
Crystal Nichols, Administrative Assistant for Office Operations

Advisory Group

  • Rodger Bybee
  • Thomas Hughes, Jr.
  • George Nelson
  • Linda Rosen
  • James Rutherford
  • Kendall Starkweather
  • Gerald Wheeler
  • William Wulf

Writing Teams

Grades K—2/3—5 Subteam

  • Jane Wheeler, Leader
  • Michael Wright, Recorder
  • Clare Benson
  • Kristin Callender
  • Linda Hallenbeck
  • Jane Hill
  • Stephan Knobloch
  • Connie Larson
  • Kathy Thornton

Grades 6—8 Subteam

  • Franzie Loepp, Leader
  • Brigitte Valesey, Recorder
  • William Ball
  • Barry Burke
  • Denise Denton
  • Michael Hacker
  • Chip Miller
  • Tonia Schofield
  • Leon Trilling

Grades 9—12 Subteam

  • Rodney Custer, Leader
  • Anthony Gilberti, Recorder
  • Robert Daiber
  • Jeffrey Grimmer
  • Norman Hackerman

Phase II of TfAAP

  • Michael Jensen
  • Michael Mino
  • Scott Warner
  • George Wilcox

Phase III of TfAAP

TfAAP was initiated and administered by the International Technology Education Association (ITEA) and funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA).
* Consult the Condensed Glossary Condensed Glossary for the applicable meaning(s) of the denoted term(s).

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