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Technology for All Americans Project (TfAA) logo

Phase I of TfAAP

Development of Rationale and Structure

Note: The ITEA-TfAAP webpages are intended to present the reader with an historical perspective of the project and the ground-breaking work it accomplished. The TfAAP web pages are archival and will not continue to be updated. After the TfAAP web pages were archived in January 2006, ITEA had a name change and became the International Technology and Engineering Educators Association (ITEEA). The name was not changed on these archival pages.

Phase I of the Technology for All Americans Project (TfAAP)* lasted from October 1994 to September 1996. During that time, TfAAP focused on developing and refining a document entitled Technology for All Americans: A Rationale and Structure for the Study of Technology, commonly referred to as Rationale and Structure.Cover of Technology for All Americans: A Rationale and Structure for the Study of Technology

Early in Phase I, The National Commission for Technology Education was appointed to serve in an advisory capacity to the TfAAP staff. The TfAAP staff also had the able assistance of writing consultants during the preparation of Rationale and Structure.

Prior to its 1996 publication, Rationale and Structure underwent an extensive review and validation process by over 500 practitioners of technology,* science,* mathematics,* engineering*, and others.

Rationale and Structure laid the philosophical foundation for the structure* and study of technology* in K-12 laboratory-classrooms.* The document defined technology and discussed the power* and promise of it. It further articulated* the need to develop* technologically literate citizens and the essential role of education in achieving that goal. Additionally the document presented a framework identifying what every student should know and be able to do in order to develop into a technologically literate citizen.

Rationale and Structure provided a basis for the subsequent development of Standards for Technological Literacy: Content for the Study of Technology and its companion publication, Advancing Excellence in Technological Literacy: Student Assessment, Professional Development, and Program Standard, developed during Phase II and Phase III respectively of TfAAP.

Completion of Technology for All Americans: A Rationale and Structure for the Study of Technology (Rationale and Structure) ended Phase I of the Technology for All Americans Project. The document is available for review in read only, PDF format in TfAAP Publications. Note that Rationale and Structure was revised in 2005 (please see Phase III of the project).

Phase I Project Participants (1994-1996)


TfAAP Staff

Dr. William E. Dugger, Jr., DTE, Project Director
Dr. Richard E. Satchwell, Assistant Project Director
Support Staff

Jodie Altice
Elizabeth Chabala
Lisa Driscoll
Michelle Griffith
Jeff Meide
Lisa Thorne

Visiting Scholars
Dr. Laverne Young-Hawkins, Associate Professor, Texas A&M University
Dr. Hidetoshi Miyakawa, Associate Professor, Aichi University of Education, Aichi, Japan

Advisory Members of The National Commission for Technology Education

  • G. Eugene Martin, Chairperson
  • J. Myron Atkin
  • E. Allen Bame
  • M. James Bensen
  • Gene R. Carter
  • Robert A. Daiber
  • James E. Davis
  • Paul W. DeVore
  • Ismael Diaz
  • William E. Dugger, Jr.
  • Frank L. Huband
  • Thomas A. Hughes, Jr.
  • Patricia A. Hutchinson
  • Thomas T. Liao
  • Franzie L. Loepp
  • Elizabeth D. Phillips
  • Charles A. Pinder
  • William S. Pretzer
  • John M. Ritz
  • Richard E. Satchwell
  • Kendall N. Starkweather
  • Charles E. Vela
  • Walter B. Waetjen
  • John G. Wirt
  • Michael D. Wright

Writing Consultants

  • William Pretzer, Coordinator
  • Robert A. Daiber
  • Paul Devore

Phase II of TfAAP

  • Franzie L. Loepp
  • Walter B. Waetjen
  • Michael D. Wright

Phase III of TfAAP

TfAAP was initiated and administered by the International Technology Education Association (ITEA) and funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA).
* Consult the Condensed Glossary Condensed Glossary for the applicable meaning(s) of the denoted term(s).

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